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Citing Sources: APA Start Here

Examples and helpful sites

Why reference?

  • To acknowledge the source of information you have used and avoid plagiarism.
  • To demonstrate you have researched carefully.
  • To help your reader follow up on your research topic.
  • The consistent format helps make it clear to the reader what sources were used.

What to reference

Provide a reference every time you quote, paraphrase or summarize someone else’s ideas, theories, information or data, no matter what the source. This includes facts, figures, tables, charts and images.

The source must be referenced whether it is:

  • published or unpublished
  • electronic or hard copy
  • text based or audio/visual.

 Your reference list may include:

Books, journals, reports, personal correspondence, case studies, blog posts, lectures, podcasts, videos, television programs, interviews and more.

You do not have to cite:

  • Your own experiences, artwork, data or findings compiled from your own research work.
  • Common knowledge - facts known to most people and found in most reference resources, widely known historical or geographic facts. Common knowledge can also include information your teacher would expect all students to know, in other words it can include some specific information widely known in a field of study such as nursing, business or the social sciences. 
  • Remember, when in doubt, cite it.

What is APA Style Referencing?

APA Style Referencing is:

  • A set of rules for acknowledging the sources you have used in your assignments
  • APA rules are used in Nursing, Business and the Social Sciences

Referencing has two elements:

  1. In-Text Citations -
  • These appear in the body of your assignment directly after the quotation or paraphrase
  • They state the author's last name and the year of publication and may include the page number
  • They will look something like this: (Klemm, 2010, p. 48)

     2.    Reference List -

  • This appears on a separate page at the end of your assignment
  • It provides a complete list of sources cited in the body of your assignment
  • It gives more detailed information to the reader
  • An entry in a reference list will look something like this:

         Tokuhama-Espinosa, T. (2010). New Science of Teaching and Learning. New York : Teachers College Press.

APA Style, 2010

  • APA Style Support Page from APA  The new 6th edition has changed so profoundly that the APA is offering a series of free tutorials. Please note that these tutorials are quite comprehensive. One tutorial runs 20 minutes and 46 seconds; the second runs for 14 minutes and 12 seconds. There is also an online course called Mastering the Sixth Edition which costs the user $40. UTPB does not pay any fees related to the use of the APA style manual.
  • In addition there is now an official  Blog APA Style which offers further support.

Son of Citation Machine

Landmark Son of Citation Machine

One of the better citation generators is Landmark Son of Citation Machine. However, a tool is a tool, not a magic wand. Machines (including computers) are not sensitive to all the variations that can influence the appearance of a citation. Thus you may need to do a little editing of spacing or other details. Do not just accept; always double check, especially since the new 6th edition of the APA Style manual made MANY changes.

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